Abstract: The campaign to liberate Mosul from ISIL began on October 17. Although it is generally believed that this operation will be a success, there remain some questions about the duration of the operation and the future of the city. It is generally accepted that the operation will take place at huge humanitarian cost, since there has only been limited time to prepare for this challenge. The biggest concern stems from the socio-political fault lines of the province given past examples from other parts of Iraq. After ISIL are defeated in Mosul, it is probable that they will continue to perpetrate terrorist attacks. In order to counter these attacks, security measures and a counter narrative will be needed. We are likely to see the relationship between Arabs and Kurds over political and territorial differences become more tense. Besides this, many observers worry about increasing sectarian violence. Taking all of these challenges into account, the defeat of ISIL in Mosul may close a chapter in Iraq’s history, but will lead to other significantly big challenges to deal with.