Abstract: The Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) is facing various challenges. Besides the urgent need for the socio-economic development of growing societies, the region is facing increasing pressure with regard to energy and water. The demand for both is increasing rapidly and future trends predict further increasingly difficult dynamics due to the negative impacts of climate change. This development might jeopardize the future stability of the region and requires appropriate strategies for addressing these challenges. The development of energy infrastructures – and especially electricity generation capacities – plays a significant role with regard to water use and the water supply system, but also for strengthening socio-economic development in the region. To prevent any negative impacts on societies by the development of new energy infrastructures and to reduce the vulnerability of the energy system, it is important to understand and to consider the linkages and trade-offs between energy and water decision-making in relation to climate change and sustainable development.