The U.S. withdrawal of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on 8 May 2018 has far-reaching implications for Iran’s relations with key and emerging global actors, as well as regional actors. U.S. withdrawal from JCPOA is re-shaping Tehran’s political and economic relations with Washington’s traditional transatlantic allies in the European Union (EU), primarily the EU3 countries (Germany, France, and the United Kingdom), which are resilient against U.S. attempts to push them to halt their investment in Iran. Russia, a rising global actor increasingly projecting its power in the wider Middle East, is supporting Iran’s commitment to JCPOA, and crafting a security partnership with Iran. Moscow is investing in Iran, as part of its attempts to expand its economic clout in the wider Middle East. Similarly, China, a pivotal global actor, sees the preservation of JCPOA and improved ties with Iran, as an important pillar to security in West Asia and the security of energy supplies from the Gulf region. Arab states, especially that of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), are also an important factor influencing Iran’s relations with global actors given their vast financial resources and changing geopolitical orientations. In this dossier, four experts address the future of Iran’s relations with China, Russia, the EU, and Arab states, considering the U.S. withdrawal from JCPOA.

Rouzbeh Parsi

Jane Kinninmont

Nikolay Kozhanov

Mohsen Shariatinia